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**APOPTOSIS (Programmed Cell Death)**

APOPTOSIS (Programmed Cell Death) ~ Apoptosis versus Necrosis • APOPTOSIS (eg. following DNA damage, hypoxia) • Prevents inflammatory response: – Characteristic morphological changes: – Membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA cleavage, fragmentation of cell into apoptotic bodies – Rapid engulfment of apoptotic cells/bodies by Macrophages or neighbouring cells • NECROSIS (occurs following acute trauma or post-apoptosis) • Promotes inflammatory response: – Cell and its organelles swell, rupture and release cellular contents ....

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Mail and Telephone Surveys ~ Chapter Two Which Is Best: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Mail, Telephone, and Face-to-Face Surveys 39 Obtaining Completed Questionnaires from a Representative Sample, 41 Is there a known opportunity for all members of the population to be included in the sample?, 41 Can the selection of respondents within sample units be controlled?, 45 Can selected respondents be located?, 46 Is substitution of respondents detrimental?,

47 Can adequate response rates be attained?, 49 Can unknown bias from refusals be aooided?, 52 Obtaining Answers to All the Questions One Wants to Ask, 54 How long can the questionnaire be?, 54 What types of questions can be asked?, 57 Is inadequate attention to construction procedures detrimental? 60 Obtaining Accurate Answers, 61 Can social desirability bias be avoided?, 62 Can interviewer distortion and subuersion be aooided?, 63 Can contamination by others be avoided?, 64 Can consultation be obtained when needed?, 65 Administering the Survey, 66 Can the personnel requirements be met?, 66 Can the survey be implemented as fast as desired?, 67 Can the cost be afforded?, 68 Conclusion, 72 Notes, 76 Chapter Three Writing Questions: Some General Principles The Kind of Information Being Sought, 80 Attitudes, 80 Beliefs, 8 1 Behavior, 83 Attributes, 83 The importance of distinguishing among types of information, 84

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47 Can adequate response rates be attained?, 49 Can unknown bias from refusals be aooided?, 52 Obtaining Answers to All the Questions One Wants to Ask, 54 How long can the questionnaire be?, 54 What types of questions can be asked?, 57 Is inadequate attention to construction procedures detrimental? 60 Obtaining Accurate Answers, 61 Can social desirability bias be avoided?, 62 Can interviewer distortion and subuersion be aooided?, 63 Can contamination by others be avoided?, 64 Can consultation be obtained when needed?, 65 Administering the Survey, 66 Can the personnel requirements be met?, 66 Can the survey be implemented as fast as desired?, 67 Can the cost be afforded?, 68 Conclusion, 72 Notes, 76 Chapter Three Writing Questions: Some General Principles The Kind of Information Being Sought, 80 Attitudes, 80 Beliefs, 8 1 Behavior, 83 Attributes, 83 The importance of distinguishing among types of information, 84

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Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent ~ PROTEIN MEASUREMENT WITH THE FOLIN PHENOL REAGENT* BY OLIVER H. LOWRY, NIRA J. ROSEBROUGH, A. LEWIS FARR, AND ROSE J. RANDALL (From the Department of Pharmacology, Washington University School oj Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri) (Received for publication, May 28, 1951) Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins (l), a number of modified analytical pro- cedures ut.ilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum (2-G), in antigen-antibody precipitates (7-9), and in insulin (10).

Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sen- sitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard t.o effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of react- ants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering subst.ances. Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation wit,h acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 y of protein. Method Reagents-Reagent A, 2 per cent N&OX in 0.10 N NaOH. Reagent B, 0.5 per cent CuS04.5Hz0 in 1 per cent sodium or potassium tartrabe. Reagent C, alkaline copper solution. Mix 50 ml. of Reagent A with 1 ml. of Reagent B. Discard after 1 day. Reagent D, carbonate-copper solution, is the same as Reagent C except for omission of NaOH.

Reagent E, diluted Folin reagent. Titrate Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent ((II), Eimer and Amend, Fisher Scientific Company, New York) with NaOH t.o a phenolphthalein end-point. On the basis of this titration dilute the Folin reagent (about 2-fold) to make it 1 N in acid. Working standards may be prepared from human serum diluted IOO- to lOOO-fold (approximately 700 to 70 y per ml.). These in turn may be checked against a standard solution of crystalline bovine albumin (Armour and * Supported in part by a grant from the American Cancer Society on the recom- mendation of the Committee on Growth of the National Research Council.

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Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sen- sitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard t.o effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of react- ants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering subst.ances. Procedures are described for measuring protein in solution or after precipitation wit,h acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 y of protein. Method Reagents-Reagent A, 2 per cent N&OX in 0.10 N NaOH. Reagent B, 0.5 per cent CuS04.5Hz0 in 1 per cent sodium or potassium tartrabe. Reagent C, alkaline copper solution. Mix 50 ml. of Reagent A with 1 ml. of Reagent B. Discard after 1 day. Reagent D, carbonate-copper solution, is the same as Reagent C except for omission of NaOH.

Reagent E, diluted Folin reagent. Titrate Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent ((II), Eimer and Amend, Fisher Scientific Company, New York) with NaOH t.o a phenolphthalein end-point. On the basis of this titration dilute the Folin reagent (about 2-fold) to make it 1 N in acid. Working standards may be prepared from human serum diluted IOO- to lOOO-fold (approximately 700 to 70 y per ml.). These in turn may be checked against a standard solution of crystalline bovine albumin (Armour and * Supported in part by a grant from the American Cancer Society on the recom- mendation of the Committee on Growth of the National Research Council.

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Selﬁsh genes, the phenotype paradigm and genome evolution ~ Natural selection operating within genomes will inevitably result in the appearance of DNAs
with no phenotypic expression whose only 'function'is survival within genomes. Prokaryotic
transposable elements and eukaryotic middle-repetitive sequences can be seen as such ...
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Integrals of nonlinear equations of evolution and solitary waves ~ In Section 1 we present a general principle for associating nonlinear equations of evolutions
with linear operators so that the eigenvalues of the linear operator are integrals of the
nonlinear equation. A striking instance of such a procedure is the discovery by Gardner, ...
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A general method for numerically simulating the stochastic time evolution of coupled chemical reactions ~ An exact method is presented for numerically calculating, within the framework of the
stochastic formulation of chemical kinetics, the time evolution of any spatially homogeneous
mixture of molecular species which interreact through a specified set of coupled chemical ...
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Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers ~ Ann. Entcmol. Soc. Am. 87 (6): 65l~ 701 (1994) ABSTRACT DNA-sequence data from the
mitochondrial genome are being used with increasing frequency to estimate phylogenetic
relationships among animal taxa. The advantage to using DNA-sequence data is that ...
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Differential evolution-a simple and efficient adaptive scheme for global optimization over continuous spaces ~ Abstract A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non differentiable
continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed, which includes
the De Jong functions, it will be demonstrated that the new method converges faster and ...
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Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in Drosophila ~ Proteins often differ in amino-acid sequence across species. This difference has evolved by
the accumulation of neutral, mutations by random drift, the fixation of adaptive mutations^ y
selection, or a mixture of the two. Here we propose a simple statistical test of the neutral ...
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The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding and selection in evolution ~ The enormous importance of biparental reproduction as a factor in evolution was brought
out a good many years ago by East. The observed properties of gene mutation—fortuitous in
origin, infrequent in occurrence and deleterious when not negligible in effect—seem about ...
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Differential evolution–a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces ~ A new heuristic approach for minimizing possiblynonlinear and non-differentiable
continuous spacefunctions is presented. By means of an extensivetestbed it is demonstrated
that the new methodconverges faster and with more certainty than manyother acclaimed ...
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When is it coevolution ~ Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions
of Use, available at http://www. jstor. org/about/terms. html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions
of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not ... Download When is it coevolution

Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems ~ Mating systems (/) were first discussed in evolutionary terms by Darwin (2). Since then, major developments in genetic theory have allowed a better understanding of sex ratios, sexual di-; moronism, and differential patterns of parental care {3-7). Important milestones ...
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On the evolution of random graphs pdf ~ ON THE EVOLUTION OF RANDOM GRAPHS by P. ERDŐS and A. RÉNYI Dedicated to Professor P. Turán at his 50th birthday. Introduction Our aim is to study the probable structure of a random graph rn N which has n given labelled vertices P, P2, . . . , Pn and N edges; we suppose that these N edges are chosen at random among the l n 1 possible edges, 2 so that all ~ 2 = Cn,n possible choices are supposed to be equiprobable . Thus 1V if G,,,,, denotes any one of the C,,N graphs formed from n given labelled points and having N edges, the probability that the random graph -Pn,N is identical with G,,,N is 1 . If A is a property which a graph may or may not possess, Cn,N we denote by PnN (A) the probability that the random graph T.,N possesses the property A, i. e. we put Pn,N (A) = An ' N where An,N denotes the Cn N number of those Gn,N which have the property A . An other equivalent formulation is the following : Let us suppose that n labelled vertices P,, P2, . . ., Pn are given. Let us choose at random an edge among the l n I possible edges, so that all these edges are equiprobable. After 2 this let us choose an other edge among the remaining In - 1 edges, and continue this process so that if already k edges are fixed, any of the remaining (n) - k edges have equal probabilities to be chosen as the next one . We shall 2 study the "evolution" of such a random graph if Nis increased. In this investi- gation we endeavour to find what is the "typical" structure at a given stage of evolution (i. e. if N is equal, or asymptotically equal, to a given function N(n) of n). By a "typical" structure we mean such a structure the probability of which tends to 1 if n -* + - when N = N(n). If A is such a property that lim Pn,N,(n) (A) = 1, we shall say that „almost all" graphs Gn,N(n) n--- possess this property.
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